Automimicry

Automimicry or intraspecific mimicry occurs within a single species, one case being where one part of an organism's body resembles another part. Examples include snakes in which the tail resembles the head and show behavior such as moving backwards to confuse predators and insects and fishes with eyespots on their hind ends to resemble the head. The term is also used when the mimic imitates other morphs within the same species. When males mimic females or vice versa this may be referred to as sexual mimicry. Examples: Many insects have filamentous "tails" at the ends of their wings which are combined with patterns of markings on the wings themselves to create a "false head" which misdirects predators (e.g., hairstreak butterflies). Several pygmy owls bear "false eyes" on the back of their head to fool predators into believing the owl is alert to their presence. The yellow throated males of the Common Side-blotched Lizard use a 'sneaking' strategy in mating. They look and behave like unreceptive females. This strategy is effective against 'usurper' males with orange throats, but ineffective against blue throated 'guarder' males, which will chase them away.[68] Female hyenas have pseudo-penises which make them look like males. An eyespot (sometimes ocellus) is an eye-like marking. They are found on butterflies, reptiles, birds and fish. In members of the Felidae family (such as the Leopard Cat and Leopard), the white circular markings on the backs of the ears are termed ocelli, and they a

e functionally similar to eyespots in other animals. Eyespots may be a form of mimicry in which a spot on the body of an animal resembles an eye of a different animal to deceive potential predator or prey species; to draw a predator's attention away from the most vulnerable body parts; or to appear as an inedible or even dangerous animal.[1] In larger animals, eyespots may play a role in intraspecies communication or courtship the most well-known example is probably the eyespots on a peacock's display feathers. The white spots on the back of Felid ears serve a social function, by communicating the animal's mental state (excited, calm, aggressive, etc.) to conspecifics in the gloom of dense forest or in tall grass. The eye-like markings in some butterflies and moths and certain other insects, as well as the Sunbittern (a bird) do not seem to serve a mimicry function. In some other cases, the evolutionary function of such spots is also not understood. There is evidence that eyespots in butterflies are antipredator adaptations, either in deimatic displays to startle or scaring off predators, or to deflect attacks away from vital body parts.[2] Butterfly eyespots may also play a role in mate recognition and sexual selection,[3] playing a similar role to the eyespots found on larger organisms mentioned above. Pattern formation of concentric spots is probably less complex than the conspicuous eyespots might suggest; eyespots may simply be morphogenetic "spandrels", not necessarily adaptations.