Technological inspiration

Researches on the wing structure of Palawan Birdwing butterflies led to new wide wingspan kite and aircraft designs.[58] Studies on the reflection and scattering of light by the scales on wings of swallowtail butterflies led to the innovation of more efficient light-emitting diodes.[59] The structural coloration of butterflies is inspiring nanotechnology research to produce paints that do not use toxic pigments and in the development of new display technologies. The discoloration and health of butterflies in butterfly farms, is now being studied for use as indicators of air quality in several cities. Birdwings are papilionid butterflies native to the Indian Subcontinent, mainland and archipelagic Southeast Asia and Australasia, and are usually regarded as belonging to three genera: Ornithoptera, Trogonoptera, and Troides. Some authorities include additional genera. The exact number of species is debated, but most recent authorities recognize between 30 and 40. Birdwings are named for their exceptional size, angular wings, and birdlike flight. Included among the birdwings are some of the largest butterflies in the world: the largest, Queen Alexandra's Birdwing (Ornithoptera alexandrae); the second largest, the Goliath Birdwing (O. goliath); and the largest butterfly endemic to Australia, the Cairns Birdwing (O. euphorion). Another well-known species is Rajah Brooke's Birdwing (Trogonoptera brookiana), a particularly attractive species named after Sir James Brooke, the first White Rajah of 19th century Sarawak. Due to their size and bright colours, they are popular among collectors of butterflies, but all birdwings are now listed by CITES,[1] thereby limiting (and in the case of O. alexandrae completely banning) international trade. Tr

ides darsius, popularly known as the Sri Lanka Birdwing, is the National Butterfly of Sri Lanka. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.[4] LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962,[5] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward-biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. A LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.[6] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players and other domestic appliances.